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How does a Smartphone Charger Work?

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A Smartphone charger use electromagnetic induction to charge Batteries. A charging station sends electromagnetic energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device, which store the energy in the Batteries. This is achieved without the need for metal contacts between the charger and the Phone Battery.

To understand the working of a smartphone charger we need to understand we need to understand the basic concept of PSU. So PSU is a (power supply unit) that transfer electrical energy from one end to another by changing its fundamental according to the requirements.

Example of PSU it is a main application that converts AC (Alternating Current) main current to DC (Direct Voltage) voltage. It is a two type depending in the mode of operation-Linear and Switching.

This image shows the how smartphone works

In the smartphone charger energy transfer is done by continuously switching electrical components on & off. So we can control the output voltage by varying the duty cycle, frequency or the corresponding phase. Using the SMPS technology (Switched Mode Power Supply) makes the charger smaller and lighter elemination of low frequency transformers. It present a great efficiency than the conventional methods which uses the bulky transformers.

The AC supply first through the line filter in the mobile charger. Line filters are the kind of electronic filters that are placed between an electronic device and an elternal line to alter the electromagnetic interference effect. Filtered signal are made to pass the full wave bridge rectifier circuit. Rectifier convert the AC voltage to DC.

DC voltage from rectifier circuit pass through the PFC (power factor correction) which operate power circuit at their maximum efficiency.

How does a Fast Charging works?

The output of a charger is measured in amperage and voltage. Amphere is the amount of electricity flowing from the battery from the connected device, while voltage is the strength of an electric current. Multiplying volts by amphere gives you wattage measure of total power.

To make a device charge faster, most manufacturer boost the amperage or vary the voltage in order to increase the amount of potential energy. The standad of fast charging is typically vary the voltage rather than boost the amperage.

Now, you have a device that support fast charger in order to take full advantage of that. If you plug a quick charger into the device that won’t support fast charging, the regulator will still prevent it from overloading your battery. That means the device won’t charge any faster.

It means that you need to buy the special charger to go with your supported device. Most probably the charger you’ve been using are won’t affect fast charging compatible. So getting the higher output charger will help.

Some maunfacturers will overstate their fast charging technology. While Qualcomm states its quick charger technology that can charge the battery to 50% in 15 minutes. It can take 40 minutes to finish the other 50%. The reason again has to with the regulator. Once the battery start charging the regulator need to find new cells to place power to avoiding overheating the cells.

What is a Wireless Charger?

A wireless charger is a charger that charge your Smartphone Battery. without a cable and plug. Most wireless charging devices take a form of a special pad or surface on which you place your phone to allow it to charge.

This image shows the how wireless charger works.

How Wireless Charger works?

Wireless charger work by creating a magnetic field that your phone or other device absorbs to gain energy. When you place a device on a wireless charging paid, a small coin in the device receives and harvets energy in the magnetic fields and uses it to the power battery.

How Wireless Charging works?

It uses electromagnetic induction to wirelessly transmit power between a wireless charger and a device that can be wirelessly charged. To simplify, there is one coil in the wireless charger and another in the receiver.

So when you place a smartphone that is capable of wireless charging on a wireless charging pad. The wireless charger sends a signal to its coil, which is picked up by the reciever coil in the smartphone. Once this happens, wireless charger will start charging your phone.

A wireless charging has a coil that is usually made of a copper. This is used has a medium to trasfer the power out of this wireless charger. When a current is passed through the coil, it generate alterating magnetic fields. A smartphone cable of charging wirelessly has a copper coil receiver. This picks the alterating magnetic fields and induces the current which is passed through a power rectifier on the battery of the smartphone to charge it.

Wireless charging require two coil to be aligned for power transmssion, so the placement of the device on the charging pad is crucial.

Wireless Charger is convenient, but it is slow and not very efficient when you compare it to the cable. Another drawback is that wireless charging generates some heating related issue. This has discourages manufactures from making fast wireless charger.

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